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AAB. 1985 et seq. Descriptions of Plant Viruses. Association of Applied Biologists, Wellesbourne, UK.

Abreu I, Oliveira M. 2004. Fruit production in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) using preserved pollen. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 55:565–569.

Adair R, Johnson RC, Hellier B, Kaiser W. 2006. Collecting tapertip onion (Allium acuminatum Hook.) in the great basin using traditional and GIS methods. Native Plant Journal 7(2):141–148.

Afonin A, Greene SL. 1999. Germplasm collecting using modern geographic information technologies: directions explored by the N.I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry. In: Greene SL, Guarino L, editors. Linking Genetic Resources and Geography: Emerging Strategies for Conserving and Using Crop Biodiversity. CSSA Special Publication 27. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin. pp.75–85.

Aggarwal AK, Brar DS, Nandi S, Huang N, Khush GS. 1999. Phylogenetic relationships among Oryza species revealed by AFLP markers. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 98:1320–1328.

Agichtein E, Gabrilovich E, Zha H. 2009. The social future of web search: modeling, exploiting, and searching collaboratively generated content. IEEE Data Engineering Bulletin 32(4):1–10. Available on-line (accessed 20 September 2011): http://sites.computer.org/debull/A09June/agichtein_ssm1.pdf .

Akihama T, Omura M. 1986. Preservation of fruit tree pollen. In: Bajaj YPS, editor. Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry. Vol. 1: Trees. Springer Verlag, Berlin. pp.101–112.

Al-Atawneh N, Shehadeh A, Amri A, Maxted N. 2009. Conservation Field Guide to Medics of the Mediterranean Basin. ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria.

Alefeld F. 1866. Landwirthschaftliche Flora. Wiegandt & Hempel, Berlin.

Alercia A, Diulgheroff S, Metz T. 2001. FAO/IPGRI Multi-crop Passport Descriptors. Bioversity International, Rome. Available online (accessed 6 October 2011): www.bioversityinternational.org/index.php?id=19&user_bioversitypublications_pi1%5BshowUid%5D=2192.

Ali N, Probert R, Hay F, Davies H, Stuppy W. 2007. Post-dispersal embryo growth and acquisition of desiccation tolerance in Anemone nemorosa L. seeds. Seed Science Research 17:155–163.

Allard RW. 1970. Population structure and sampling methods. In: Frankel OH, Bennett E, editors. Genetic Resources in Plants: Their Exploration and Conservation. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, UK. pp.97–107.

Altieri MA. 1993. Ethnoscience and biodiversity: key elements in the design of sustainable pest management systems for small farmers in developing countries. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 46:257–272.

Angelovici R, Galili G, Fernie AR, Fait A. 2010. Seed desiccation: a bridge between maturation and germination. Trends in Plant Science 15:211–218.

Anon. 1983. Description et essai de classification de variétés de Haricot Nain. National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA), Versailles.

Andrews S, Leslie AC, Alexander C, editors. 1999. Taxonomy of Cultivated Plants: Third International Symposium. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK.

APG III. 2009. An update of the angiosperm phylogeny group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161(2):105–121. Available online (accessed 6 October 2011): http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x/pdf.

Arai-Kichise Y, Shiwa Y, Nagasaki H, Ebana K, Yoshikawa H, Yano M, Wakasa K. 2011. Discovery of genome-wide DNA polymorphisms in a landrace cultivar of japonica rice by whole-genome sequencing. Plant Cell Physiology 52(2):274–282.

Araújo MB, Pearson RG, Thuiller W, Erhard M. 2005. Validation of species-climate impact models under climate change. Global Change Biology 11:1504–1513.

Arponen A, Heikkinen R, Thomas CD, Moilanen A. 2005. The value of biodiversity in reserve selection: Representation, species weighting and benefit functions. Conservation Biology 19: 2009–2014.

Atlas Florae Europaeae. 2011. Distribution of Vascular Plants in Europe. Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki, Helsinki. Available online (accessed 6 October 2011): www.luomus.fi/english/botany/afe/index.htm.

Austin M. 2007. Species distribution models and ecological theory: a critical assessment and some possible new approaches. Ecological Modelling 200:1–19. Available online (accessed 6 October 2011): www.whoi.edu/cms/files/Ecological_Modelling_2007_Austin_53560.pdf.

Azurdia C, Williams K, Williams D, Van Damme A, Jarvis A, Castaño S. 2011. Atlas of Guatemalan crop wild relatives. Available online (accessed 10 June 2012): www.ars.usda.gov/ba/atlascwrguatemala.

Bacchetta G, Bueno A, Fenu G, Jiménez-Alfaro B, Mattana E, Piotto B, Virevaire M. 2008. Conservación Ex Situ De Plantas Silvestres. Gobierno del Principado de Asturias, Obra Social La Caixa, Oviedo, Spain.

Bagyaraj JD, Stümer SL. 2008. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In: Moreira FMS, Huising J, Bignell DE, editors. A Handbook of Tropical Soil Biology. Earthscan, London. pp.131–146.

Bajaj YPS. 1987. Cryopreservation of pollen and pollen embryos, and the establishment of pollen banks. International Review of Cytology 107:397–420.

Balmford A. 2003. Conservation planning in the real world: South Africa shows the way. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18:435–438.

Bandel G, Gurgel JTA. 1967. Proporção do sexo em Pinheiro Brasileiro Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Ktze. Rev. Tec. Serv. Florestal do Est. de S. Paulo. Secr. Agr. Est. S. Paulo 6: 209–220.

Barazani O, Perevolotsky A, Hadas R. 2008. A problem of the rich: Prioritizing local plant genetic resources for ex situ conservation in Israel. Biological Conservation 141: 596–600.

Barnabás B. 1994. Preservation of maize pollen. In: Bajaj YPS, editor. Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry. Vol. 25. Springer Verlag, Berlin. pp. 608–618.

Barnabás B, Kovács G. 1996. Storage of pollen. In: Shivanna KR, Sawhney VK, editors. Pollen Biotechnology for Crop Production and Improvement. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. pp. 293–314.

Barnabás B, Rajki E. 1976. Storage of maize (Zea mays L.) pollen at -196oC in liquid nitrogen. Euphytica 25:747–752.

Barret SCH, Yakimowsky SB, Field DL, Pickup M. 2010. Ecological genetics of sex ratios in plant populations. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 365:2549–2557.

Baum BR. 1981 Taxonomy of the infraspecific variability of cultivated plants. Kulturpflanze 29:209–239.

Baum BR, Duncan T, Phillips RB. 1984. A bibliography of numerical phenetic studies in systematic botany. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 71:1044–1060.

Bawa KS. 1974. Breeding systems of tree species of a lowland tropical community. Evolution 28(1):85–92.

Bawa KS. 1980. Evolution of dioecy in flowering plants. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 11:15–39.

Bawa KS, Perry DR, Beach JH. 1985. Reproductive biology of tropical lowland rain forest. I. Sexual systems and incompatibility mechanisms. American Journal of Botany 72(3):331–345.

Beaton G, Pegler DN, Young TWK. 1985. Gasteroid Basidiomycota of Victoria State, Australia: 8–9. Kew Bulletin 40:827–842.

Beauvais GP, Keinath DA, Hernandez P, Master L, Thurston R. 2006. Element Distribution Modeling: A Primer. Version 2. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available online (accessed 6 October 2011): www.natureserve.org/prodServices/pdf/EDM_white_paper_2.0.pdf.

Becking JH. 1977. Dinitrogen fixing associations in higher plants other than legumes. In: Hardy RWF, Silver W, editors. A Treatise on Dinitrogen Fixation. John Wiley & Sons, New York. pp.185–275.

Beentje H. 2010. The Kew Plant Glossary: An Illustrated Dictionary of Plant Terms. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK.

Bell AD. 1991. Plant Form: An Illustrated Guide to Flowering Plant Morphology. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Bellon MR, Brush SB. 1994. Keepers of the maize in Chiapas, Mexico. Economic Botany 48:196û209.

Bekessy SA, Ennos RA, Burgman MA, Newton AC, Ades PK. 2003. Neutral DNA markers fail to detect genetic divergence in an ecologically important trait. Biological Conservation 110(2):267–275.

Bennett SJ, Bullitta S. 2003. Ecogeographical analysis of the distribution of six Trifolium species in Sardinia. Biodiversity and Conservation 12(7):1455–1466.

Benson EE, Harding K, Debouck D, Dumet D, Escobar R, Mafla G, Panis B, Panta A, Tay D, Van den houwe I, Roux N. 2011. Refinement and standardization of storage procedures for clonal crops – Global Public Goods Phase 2: Part I. Project landscape and general status of clonal crop in vitro conservation technologies. System-wide Genetic Resources Programme, Rome, Italy. Available here (2.5 MB).

Benson EE, Harding K, Debouck D, Dumet D, Escobar R, Mafla G, Panis B, Panta A, Tay D, Van den houwe I, Roux N. 2011. Refinement and standardization of storage procedures for clonal crops – Global Public Goods Phase 2: Part II. Status of in vitro conservation technologies for: Andean root and tuber crops, cassava, Musa, potato, sweet potato and yam. System-wide Genetic Resources Programme, Rome, Italy. Available here (9 MB).

Benson EE, Harding K, Debouck D, Dumet D, Escobar R, Mafla G, Panis B, Panta A, Tay D, Van den houwe I, Roux N. 2011. Refinement and standardization of storage procedures for clonal crops – Global Public Goods Phase 2: Part III. Multi-crop guidelines for developing in vitro conservation best practices for clonal crops. System-wide Genetic Resources Programme, Rome, Italy. Available here (4.5 MB).

Berjak P, Pammenter NW. 2003. Understanding and handling desiccation-sensitive seeds. In: Smith RD, Dickie JB, Linington SH, Pritchard HW, Probert RJ, editors. Seed Conservation: Turning Science into Practice. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, UK. pp. 415–430. Available online (accessed 4 October 2011): www.kew.org/msbp/scitech/publications/SCTSIP_digital_book/pdfs/Chapter_22.pdf.

Berjak P, Pammenter NW. 2008. From Avicennia to Zizania: seed recalcitrance in perspective. Annals of Botany 101:213–228.

Berjak P, Vertucci CW, Pammenter NW. 1993. Effects of developmental status and dehydration rate on characteristics of water and desiccation sensitivity in recalcitrant seeds of Camellia sinensis. Seed Science Research 3: 155–166.

Berlin B. 1999. Chapter 4: How a folk botanical system can be both natural and comprehensive: one Maya Indian’s view of the plant world. In: Medin DL, Atran S, editors. Folkbiology. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. pp.71–89.

Bettencourt E, Konopka J, Damania AB. 1989. Directory of Crop Germplasm Collections. 1. Food LEGUMES. International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, Rome.

Bhullar NK, Street K, Mackay M, Yahiaoui N, Keller B. 2009. Unlocking wheat genetic resources for the molecular identification of previously undescribed functional alleles at the Pm3 resistance locus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106:9519 –9524.

Bilz M, Kell SP, Maxted N, Lansdown RV. 2011. European Red List of Vascular Plants. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.

Bioversity and The Christensen Fund. 2009. Descriptors for Farmers’ Knowledge of Plants. Bioversity International, Rome, and The Christensen Fund, Palo Alto, California. Available online (accessed 8 October 2011): www.bioversityinternational.org/nc/publications/publication/issue/descriptors_for_farmers_knowledge_of_plants.html.

Bioversity International. 2009. Modern crop varieties can increase local genetic diversity. Plant Breeding News, an Electronic Newsletter of Applied Plant Breeding, edition 201, May 2009. Available online (accessed 6 October 2011): www.fao.org/ag/agp/agpc/doc/services/pbn/pbn-201.htm#a115.

Björk B-C, Welling P, Laakso M, Majlender P, Hedlund T, Guðnason G. 2010. Open access to the scientific journal literature: situation 2009. PLoS ONE 5(6): e11273/journal.pone.0011273. Available on-line (accessed 20 September 2011): www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011273.

Blach-Overgaard A, Svenning J-C, Dransfield J, Greve M, Balslev H. 2010. Determinants of palm species distributions across Africa: the relative roles of climate, non-climate environmental factors, and spatial constraints. Ecography 33:380–391.

Bland RG, Jacques HE. 1978. How To Know Insects. WC Brown Company Publishers, Dubuque, Iowa.

Blixt S. 1979. Some genes of importance for the evolution of the pea in cultivation (and a short presentation of the Weibullsholm-PGA collection). In: Zeven AC, van Harten AM, editors. Broadening the Genetic Basis of Crops. PUDOC, Wageningen, The Netherlands. pp.195–202.

Bolat I, Pirlak L. 1999. An investigation on pollen viability, germination and tube growth in some stone fruits. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 23:383–388.

Bontemps C, Elliott G, Simon MF, Does Reis Junior FB, Gross E, Lauton RC, Elias Neto N, Loureiro MF, de Faria S, Sprent J, James EK, Young P. 2010. Burkholderia species are ancient symbionts of legumes. Molecular Ecology 19:44–52.

Borror DJ, Delong DM, Triplehorn CA. 1976. An Introduction to the Study of Insects. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.

Boster JS. 1985. Selection for perceptual distinctiveness: evidence from Aguaruna cultivars of Manihot esculenta. Economic botany 39(3):310–325.

Brach AR, Song H. 2006. eFloras: New directions for online floras exemplified by the Flora of China Project. Taxon 55(1):188–192.

Bradshaw JE, editor. 2010. Root and Tuber Crops. Handbook of Plant Breeding, Vol. 7. Springer Verlag, London.

Brandenburg WA. 1999. Crop-weed complexes and the culton concept. In: Andrews S, Leslie AC, Alexander C, editors. Taxonomy of Cultivated Plants: Third International Symposium. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK. pp.145–157.

Brandenburg WA, Schneider F. 1988. Cultivar grouping in relation to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. Taxon 37:141–147.

Breiman L. 2001 Random forests. Machine Learning 45:5–32.

Breiman L, Friedman JH, Olshen RA, Stone CJ. 1984. Classification and Regression Trees. Chapman & Hall, New York.

Brenes Hines A, Tapia VG, Velasco Urquizo E. 2002. Citrus. IPGRI Technical Bulletin 7:56–60. Background and methods for in vitro collection of Citrus germplasm.

Bressan EA, Veasey EA, Peroni N, Felipim AP, Santos KMP. 2005. Collecting yam (Dioscorea spp.) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) germplasm in traditional agriculture small-holdings in the Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo, Brazil. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter 144:8–13.

Brewbacker JL, Kwack BH. 1963. The essential role of calcium ion in pollen germination and pollen tube growth. American Journal of Botany 50:859.

Brickell CD, Alexander C, David JC, Hetterscheid WLA, Leslie AC, Malecot V, Xiaobai Jin, Cubey JJ, editors. 2009. New Edition of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. Scripta Horticulturae 10. International Society for Horticultural Science, Leuven, Belgium.

British Museum (Natural History). 1974. Insects. Instructions for collectors No.4a. British Museum (Natural History), London.

Brockwell J. 1980. Experiments with crop and pasture legumes – principles and practice. In: Bergersen FJ, editor. Methods for Evaluating Biological Nitrogen Fixation. John Wiley & Sons, New York. pp.417–490.

Brooks TM, Bakarr MI, Boucher T, da Fonseca GAB, Hilton-Taylor C, Hoekstra JM. 2004. Coverage provided by the global PA system: Is it enough? Bioscience 54(12):1081–1091.

Brown AHD. 2008. Thematic background study on “Indicators of genetic diversity, genetic erosion and genetic vulnerability for plant genetic resources for food and agriculture”. A report submitted to FAO. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.

Brown AHD, Briggs JD. 1991. Sampling strategies for genetic variation in ex situ collections of endangered plant species. In: Falk D.A., Holsinger K.E., editors. Genetics and Conservation of Rare Plants. Oxford University Press, New York. pp. 99–119.

Brown AHD, Brubaker CL. 2002. Indicators of sustainable management of plant genetic resources: How well are we doing? In: Engels JMM, Ramanatha Rao V, Brown AHD, Jackson MT, editors. Managing Plant Genetic Diversity. CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK. pp. 249–262.

Brown AHD, Hardner CM. 2000. Sampling the gene pools of forest trees and ex situ conservation. In: Young A, Boyle TJB, Boshier D, editors. Forest Conservation Genetics Principles and Practices. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia. pp. 185–196.

Brown AHD, Briggs JD. 1991. Sampling strategies for genetic variation in ex situ collections of endangered plant species. In: Falk DA, Holsinger KE, editors. Genetics and Conservation of Rare Plants. Oxford University Press, New York. pp.99–119.

Brown AHD, Marshall DR. 1995. A basic sampling strategy: theory and practice. In: Guarino L, Ramanatha Rao V, Reid R, editors. Collecting Plant Genetic Diversity: Technical Guidelines. CAB International, Wallingford, UK. pp.75–91.

Brown SM, Hopkins MS, Mitchell SE, Wang TY, Kresovich S, Duncan RR, Senior ML and Gonzalez-Candelas F. 1996. Multiple methods for the identification of polymorphic simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). Theoretical and Applied Genetics 93:190–198.

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Brunt AA, Crabtree K, Dallwitz M, Gibbs A, Watson L, Zurcher E, editors. 1996. Plant Viruses Online: Descriptions and Lists from the VIDE Database. CAB International, Wallingford, UK. Available online (accessed 15 August 2011): www.agls.uidaho.edu/ebi/vdie/refs.htm.

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Buitink J, Leprince O, Hemminga MA, Hoekstra FA. 2000. The effects of moisture and temperature on the ageing kinetics of pollen: interpretation based on cytoplasmic mobility. Plant, Cell and Environment 23:967–974.

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Burgman A, Grimson RC, Ferson S. 1995. Inferring threat from scientific collections. Conservation Biology 9:923–929.

Burke JJ, Velten J, Oliver MJ. 2004. In vitro analysis of cotton pollen germination. Agronomy Journal 96:359–368.

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Butler LH, Hay FR, Ellis RH, Smith RD. 2009. Post-abscission pre-dispersal seeds of Digitalis purpurea L. remain in a developmental state that is not terminated by desiccation ex planta. Annals of Botany 103:785–794.

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Byers DL. 2005. Evolution in heterogeneous environments and the potential of maintenance of genetic variation in traits of adaptive significance. Georgia Genetics Review III 3:107–124.

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Dafni A, Firmage D. 2000. Pollen viability and longevity: practical, ecological and evolutionary implications. Plant Systematics and Evolution 222:113–132.

Dai L, Chengli You, Quek P. 2008. Indigenous Knowledge and Agro-Biodiversity. China Science Press, Beijing.

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Dansi A, Pillay M, Mignouna HD, Daïnou O, Mondeil F, Moutaïrou K. 2000. Ploidy level of the cultivated yams (Dioscorea cayenensis / D. rotundata complex) from Benin Republic as determined by chromosome counting and flow cytometry. African Crop Science Journal 8(4):355–364.

Dansi A, Mignouna HD, Pillay M, Zok S. 2001. Ploidy variation in the cultivated yams (Dioscorea cayenensis-Dioscorea rotundata complex) from Cameroon as determined by flow cytometry. Euphytica 119:301–307.

Dansi A, Daïnou O, Agbangla, Ahanhanzo C, Brown S, Adoukonou-Sagbadja H. 2005. Ploidy level and nuclear DNA content of some accessions of water yam (Dioscorea alata) collected at Savè, a district of central Benin. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter 144:20–23.

Dansi A, Adjatin A, Adoukonou-Sagbadja H, Faladé V, Yedomonhan H, Odou D, Dossou B. 2008. Traditional leafy vegetables and their use in the Benin Republic. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 55(8):1239–1256.

Dansi A, Adoukonou-Sagbadja H, Vodouhe R. 2010. Diversity, conservation and related wild species of Fonio millet (Digitaria spp.) in the northwest of Benin. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 57(6):827–839.

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The Genebanks

The 11 CGIAR genebanks currently conserve 730,000 of cereals and grain legumes, forage crops, tree species, root and tuber crops, bananas and crop wild relatives.

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