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Cassava References

Publications on Cassava

Adekunle AA, Dixon A, Ojurongbe J, Liona P, Muthada L, Adisa S. 2004. Growing Cassava Commercially in Nigeria. USAID, ICS-Nigeria and IITA. 22 pp. Available from: http://www.cassavabiz.org/agroenterprise/ent%20images/casava%20illust%20guid%20book.pdf. Date accessed: 1 August 2008.

Allem AC. 1987. Manihot esculenta is a native of the neotropics. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter, 71: 22-24. IBPGR/FAO

Allem AC. 1992. Manihot germplasm collecting priorities. In: Roca WM, Thro AM, editors. Report of the First Meeting of the International Network for Cassava Genetic Resources, 18-23 August 1992. Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, Cali, Colombia. pp. 87-110.

Allem AC. 1994. The origin of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae). Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 41: 133-150. Netherlands.

Allem AC. 2002. The origins and taxonomy of cassava. In: Hillocks RJ, Thresh JM, Bellotti AC, editors. Cassava: Biology, Production and Utilization. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK. pp. 1–16.

Alves AC. 2002. Cassava botany and physiology. In: Hillocks RJ, Thresh JM, Bellotti AC, editors. Cassava: Biology, Production and Utilization. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK. pp. 67–89.

Bellotti AC. 2002. Arthropod pests. In: Hillocks RJ, Thresh JM, Bellotti AC, editors. Cassava: Biology, Production and Utilization. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK. pp. 209–235.

Bertram RB. 1993. Application of molecular techniques to genetic resources of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae): interspecific evolutionary relationships and intraspecific characterization. University of Maryland. (PhD thesis).

Best R, Henry G. 1994. Cassava: Towards the year 2000. In: International Network for Cassava Genetic Resources. Report of the First Meeting, CIAT, Cali, Colombia, 18-23 August 1992. International Crop Network Series No. 10, IPGRI, Rome, Italy. pp. 3-11.

Bioversity International, CIAT. 2009. Key access and utilization descriptors for cassava genetic resources. Bioversity International, Rome, Italy, International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Cali, Colombia. Available here.

Bonierbale M, Guevara C, Dixon AGO, Ng NQ, Asiedu R, Ng SYC. 1997. Cassava. In: Fuccillo D, Sears L, Stapleton P, editors. Biodiversity in Trust. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1-21.

Calles T, Dulloo ME, Engels JMM, Van den Houwe I. 2003. Best Practices for Germplasm Management – A new approach for achieving genebank standards. Technical Report. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Global Crop Diversity Trust, Rome, Italy.

Calvert LA, Thresh JM. 2002. The viruses and virus diseases of cassava. In: Hillocks RJ, Thresh JM, Bellotti AC, editors. Cassava: Biology, Production and Utilization. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK. pp. 236–260.

Carter SE, Fresco LO, Jones PG, Fairbairn JN. 1997. Introduction and diffusion of cassava in Africa, IITA Research Guide 49. Available from: http://old.iita.org/cms/details/trn_mat/irg49/irg49.html Date accessed: 11 August 2010.

Ceballos H. 2006. Cassava research at CIAT [poster]. Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Cali, Colombia. Available from: URL: http://webapp.ciat.cgiar.org/news/pdf/poster02_scmeeting_06.pdf Date accessed: 26 August 2010.

CIAT. 1984. Cassava Program Annual Report. Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Cali, Colombia.

CIAT. 1993. Cassava Program Annual Report. Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Cali, Colombia.

CIAT. 2001. Cryopreservation of Cassava Germplasm, Its Wild Relatives, and Cell Lines for Tissue Culture. Available from:  http://webapp.ciat.cgiar.org/biotechnology/crops_cassava.htm#cryo Date accessed: 26 August 2010.

Cock JH. 1985. Cassava: physiological basis. In: Cock JH, Reyes JA, editors. Cassava: Research, Production and Utilization. UNDP/CIAT. pp. 33–62.

Cuervo MI, Balcazar MS, Ramirez JL, Medina CA, Debouck D. 2009. Manual de operaciones laboratorio sanidad de germoplasma – unidad de recursos genéticos. GRP, CIAT, Colômbia. 72 pp. Available in Spanish (2.8 MB) and English (2.6 MB).

 Danso KE, Ford-Lloyd BV. 2004. Cryopreservation of embryogenic calli of cassava using sucrose cryoprotection and air desiccation. Plant Cell Reports 22: 623-631.

De Goes M, Sias-Costa CIR, Guedes AC, Morales EAV, Second G. 1999. Cassava – a Brazilian model for the field maintenance of germplasm. In: Engelman F, editor. Management of field and in vitro germplasm collections. IPGRI, Rome, Italy. pp. 10–12.

Debouck DG. 1991. Genetic variation in crop species and their wild relatives: a viewpoint for their conservation. In: Becker B, editor.Genetic diversity and crop strategies for roots and tubers. Arbeitsgemeinschaft Tropische und Subtropische Agrarforschung e.V. and International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, Bonn, Germany, pp. 41-51.

Devries J, Toenniessen G. 2001. Securing the harvest: biotechnology, breeding, and seed systems for African crops. CABI Publishing, New York. 208 pp.

Ellis RH, Hong TD, Roberts EH. 1981. The influence of desiccation on cassava seed germination and longevity. Ann. Bot., 47: 173-175.

Epperson JE, Pachico DH, Guevara CL. 1996. The cost of maintaining genetic resources of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz. Acta Horticulturae 429: 409-413.

Epperson JE, Pachico DH, Guevara CL. 1997. A cost analysis of maintaining cassava plant genetic resources. Crop Science 37 (5) 1641-1649.

Escobar RH, Mafla G, Roca WM. 1993. Cryopreservation of cassava shoot tips. In: Roca WM, Thro AM, editors. Proceedings First Scientific Meeting of the Cassava Biotechnology Network, 25-28 Aug. 1992, Cartagena. CIAT, Cali, Colombia, pp. 116-121.

Escobar RH, Mafla G, Roca WM. 1997. A methodology for recovering cassava plants from shoot tips maintained in liquid nitrogen. Plant Cell Reports 16: 474-478. Available here.

Escobar RH, Manrique N, Munoz L, Rios A, Debouck D, Tohme J. Cassava cryopreservation by rapid freezing methodology. CIAT, Cali, Colombia. Available from: http://isa.ciat.cgiar.org/urg/urgweb_folder/files/unitfiles/Cassava%20cryopreservation%20by%20rapid%20freezing%20methodology.pdf. Date accessed: 6 October 2010.

Escobar RM, Roca WM, Mafla G, Roa J. 1994. In vitro conservation of genetic resources: The case of cassava. CIAT (Internal Circulation). 23 p.

FAO. 2004. Production Year Book. FAO, Rome, Italy.

FAO/IFAD. 2000. The world cassava economy: facts, trends and outlook. FAO/IFAD. Rome. Available from  www.fao.org/docrep/009/x4007e/x4007e00.htm. Date accessed: 25 March 2010.

FAOSTAT. 2008. Statistical database of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAOSTAT. Available from: http://faostat.fao.org Date accessed: 10 August 2010.

Fregene M, Ospina JA, Roca W. 1999. Recovery of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) plants from culture of immature zygotic embryos. Plant Cell Reports 55:39-43.

Fregene M, Vargas I, Ikea J, Angel F, Thome J, Asiedu RA, Akoroda MO, Roca WM. 1994. Variability of chloroplast DNA and nuclear ribosomal DNA in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and its wild relatives. Theor. Appl. Genet., 89: 719-727.

Fresco L. 1986. Cassava in shifting cultivation: a systems approach to agricultural technology development in Africa. Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam. 290 pp.

Frison EA, Feliu E, editors. 1991. FAO/IBPGR Technical Guidelines for the Safe Movement of Cassava Germplasm. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome/International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, Rome.

Fukuda WMG, Costa IRS, Silva SO. 2005. Manejo e conservacao de recursos geneticos de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz) na Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical. Circular Tecnica 74. 4 pp.

Fukuda WMG, Costa IRS, Vilarinhos AD, Oliveira RP. 1996. Banco de germoplasma de mandioca: manejo, conservacao e caracterizacao. EMBRAPA-CNPMF Documentos 68 EMBRAPA-CNPMF, Cruz das Almas, Brazil. 103 pp.

Fukuda WMG, Guevara CL, Kawuki R, Ferguson ME. 2010. Selected morphological and agronomic descriptors for the characterization of cassava. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria. 19 pp. Available from:  http://www.iita.org/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=4530a72e-917d-4801-9239-cb0ee3a4dd4e&groupId=25357. Date accessed: 30 September 2010.

Fukuda WMG, Guevara CL.1998. Descritores morfológicos e agronómicos para a caracterização de madioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz). [Morphological and agronomic descriptors for characterizing cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz] Documentos CNPMF no. 78. EMBRAPA/CNPMF. Cruz das Almas BA, Brazil.

Fukuda WMG. 1996. Banco de germoplasma de mandioca: manejo, conservação e caracterização. Cruz das Almas, BA: EMBRAPA-CNPMF. 103p. (EMBRAPA-CNPMF, Documento, 68).

Gonzalez-Arnao MT, Panta A, Roca WM, Escobar RH, Engelmann F. 2007. Development and large scale application of cryopreservation techniques for shoot and somatic embryo cultures of tropical crops. Available from:  http://www.springerlink.com/content/y42117245j364361/fulltext.pdf Date accessed: 26 August 2010.

Guevara C, Ospina JA, Mafla G, Verdier V. 1998. Zygotic embryo culture of Manihot esculenta Crantz: a practical approach for the safe international movement of cassava seed stocks. FAO/Bioversity Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter 115: 33-38.

Guevara CL, Mafla G. 1996. Manihot collections held at CIAT. In: Engelmann F, editor. Management of field and in vitro Germplasm collections.CIAT, Cali, Colombia. Pp. 109-112.

Gulick P, Hershey C, Esquinas AJ. 1983. Genetic resources of cassava and wild relatives. Series AGPG:IBPGR/82/111. IBPGR Secretariat, Rome. 60 pp.

Hahn SK, L Reynolds, GN Egbunike. 1992. Cassava as livestock feed in Africa: proceedings of the IITA/ILCA/University of IBADAN workshop on the potential utilization of cassava as livestock feed in Africa. 14-18 November, 1988. IITA. Ibadan, Nigeria. Available from: www.fao.org/Wairdocs/ILRI/x5458E/x5458E00.htm. Date accessed: 25 March 2010.

Hershey C, Iglesias C, Iwanaga M, Tohme J. 1994. Definition of a core collection for cassava. In International Network for Cassava Genetic Resources. Report of the First Meeting, CIAT, Cali, Colombia, 18-23 August 1992. International Crop Network Series No. 10, IPGRI, Rome, Italy. pp.145-156.

Hershey C. 2008. A global conservation strategy for cassava (Manihot esculenta) and wild Manihot species. Summary of stakeholder deliberations and recommendations prepared for the Global Crop Diversity Trust. Available from: http://isa.ciat.cgiar.org/urg/urgweb_folder/files/unitfiles/A%20Global%20Conservation%20Strategy%20for%20Manihot%20%20August%202008-2.pdf. Date accessed: 7 Oct. 2010.

Hidalgo R. 1995. Conservación Ex-Situ. In: “Memorias. Curso de Documentación de Recursos Fitogenéticos”. Auspiciado por Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bioversity y CIAT. Palmira. pp. 33-41.

Hillocks RJ, Thresh JM, Bellott AC, editors. 2002. Cassava: biology, production and utilization. CABI International, NY. 332 pp.

Hillocks RJ. 2002. Cassava in Africa. In: Hillocks RJ, Thresh JM, Bellotti AC, editors. Cassava: Biology, Production and Utilization. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK. pp. 41–54.

Howeler RH, Oates CG,  Allem AC. 2001. Strategic environmental assessment: an assessment of the impact of cassava production and processing on the environment and biodiversity. Proceedings of the Validation Forum on the Global Cassava Development Strategy, Rome, 26-28 April 2000. FAO and IFAD, Rome.

Iglesias C, Hershey C, Calle H, Bolaños A. 1994. Propagating cassava (Manihot esculenta) by sexual seed. Expl. Agric. 30:283-290.

Iglesias CA. 1999. Field maintenance of cassava germplasm. In: Engelman F, editor. Management of field and in vitro germplasm collections. IPGRI, Rome, Italy. pp. 5–9.

IITA Genebank Manual Series, Cassava field bank operations at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA). International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria.

IITA. 1993. Annual Report. International Institute for Tropical Agriculture. Ibadan, Nigeria. 64 pp.

IITA. 2007. Cassava in vitro processing and gene banking. IITA Genebank series 2007. Available here .

INIA. 2005. Descriptor de yuca (Manihot esculenta). Programa Nacional de Investigación en Recursos Genéticos y Biotecnología, PRONIRGEB, INIA, Lima, Peru. 52 pp.

IPGRI. 1994. Report of the First Meeting of the International Network for Cassava Genetic Resources, CIAT, Cali, Colombia, 18-23 August 1992. International Crop Network Series No. 10. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy. 179 pp.

Iwanaga M, Ayala ME, Ocampo CH, Hershey C. 1993. Caracterización de la colección de Colombia del germoplasma de yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz) por electroforesis PAGE utilizando la isoenzima aß-esterasa. In: Clausen AM, editor. Recursos genéticos hortícolas, Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Balcarce, Argentina. pp. 244-258.

Koo B, Pardey PG, Debouck D. 2004. CIAT genebank. In: Koo B, Pardey PG, Wright BD. Saving seeds: the economics of conserving crop genetic resources ex situ in the future harvest centres of the CGIAR. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK.

Lelhner D. 2002. Agronomy and cropping systems. In: Hillocks RJ, Thresh JM, Bellotti AC, editors. Cassava: Biology, Production and Utilization. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK. pp. 91–113.

Leyton M. 1993. Crioconservación de pollen de yucca. Bachelor’s thesis. Univ. del Valle, Facultad de Ciencias, Dept. de Biología, Cali, Colombia.

Lima MC, Velasquez H, Santos LG, Debouck DG. GRU Handbook of procedures – seed conservation – pre-drying. GRU, CIAT, Colombia. 10pp. Available from: http://isa.ciat.cgiar.org/urg/urgweb_folder/files/handbookprocedures/en/GRU%20HandbookProceduresPreDryingApril.pdf Date accessed: 7 Oct. 2010.

Lozano JC, Byrne D, Bellotti A. 1980. Cassava/ecosystem relationships and their influence on breeding strategy. Tropical Pest Management. 26:180-187.

Machin D, Nyvold S, editors. 1992. Roots, tubers, plantains and bananas in animal feeding. In: Proceedings of the FAO expert consultation held in CIAT, Cali, Colombia. 21-25 January 1991. FAO. Rome. Available  from  www.fao.org/DOCREP/003/T0554E/T0554E00.HTM. Date accessed: 25 March 2010.

Mafla G, Roa JC, Aranzales E, Debouck D. 2009. Handbook of procedures for in vitro germplasm conservation of the genus Manihot. CIAT, Cali, Colombia. 56 pp. Available here (8 MB).

Mafla G, Roa JC, Debouck DG. 2004. Observations about the distribution of cassava germplasm from an international collection. Poster presented at the CBN-V. Available from: URL: http://isa.ciat.cgiar.org/urg/urgweb_folder/files/posters/CBN-V.%20G%20Mafla%20ppt.pdf Date accessed: 30 August 2010.

Mafla G, Roa JC, Flor NC, Aranzales E, Debouck DG. 2006. Distribution of cassava germplasm from an international genebank: a service to the global agriculture. Poster presented at the first meeting of the Governing Body, ITPGRFA, Madrid, Spain, 12-16 June 2006. Available from: URL: http://ciat-library.ciat.cgiar.org/Articulos_Ciat/CIAT40years.pdf Date accessed: 26 August 2010.

Mafla G, Roa JC, Flor NC, Debouck DG. 2002. Conservación in vitro y utilización del germoplasma del género Manihot. Trabajo presentado en el VIII Congreso Latinoamericano de Botánica y II Congreso Colombiano de Botánica, Cartagena, Colombia, 13-18 Octubre 2002. Available from: URL: http://isa.ciat.cgiar.org/urg/urgweb_folder/files/posters/cartagenafinal.pdf Date accessed: 26 August 2010.

Mafla G, Roa JC, Guevara CL. 2000. Advances on the in vitro growth control of cassava using silver nitrate. In: Carvalho LJCB, Thro AM, Vilarinhos AD, editors. Proceedings IV International Scientific Meeting of the Cassava Biotechnology Network, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. November 03-07, 1998. EMBRAPA , CENARGEN and CBN. Brasilia, Brazil. Pp. 439-446.

Mafla G, Roa JC, Ocampo C, Gallego G, Jaramillo G, Debouck DG. 2004. Efficacy of silver nitrate for slow growth conservation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Determination of viability and genetic stability. In: Abstracts of the Sixth International Scientific Meeting of the Cassava Biotechnology Network. March 8-14 CIAT, Cali, Colombia. p. 134.

Mafla G, Roa JC, Ocampo CH, Gallego G, Jaramillo G, Debouck DG. 2004. Efficacy of silver nitrate for slow-growth conservation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Determination of viability and genetic stability. Poster presented at CBN-IV. Available from: URL: http://isa.ciat.cgiar.org/urg/urgweb_folder/files/posters/CBN-VI.pdf Date accessed: 26 August 2010.

Mafla G, Roa JC, Roca WM. 1990. Micropropagación de la yuca para la producción de material de siembra libre de enfermedades. In: Jaramillo J, y Agudelo O, editors. La nueva Biotecnología. Fundamentos, usos y perspectivas. ICA. pp. 91-101.

Mafla G, Roca WM, Kartha K. 1987. Conservation of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) germplasm in vitro, IV: Evaluation of phenotypic estability of plants grown from cryo preserved shoot tip cultures. In: Angarita A, editor. Abstracts of International Congress of plant tissue culture tropical species. Bogotá, Colombia, pp 75.

Mafla G, Roca WM, Reyes R, Roa JC, Muñoz L, Baca AE, Iwanaga M. 1992. In vitro management of cassava germplasm at CIAT. In: Roca WM, Thro AM,  editors. Proceedings of first international scientific meeting of the cassava Biotechnology network. Cartagena, Colombia, pp. 168-174.

Mafla G. 1994. Conservación de germoplasma In vitro. In: King C, Osorio J, Salazar L, editors. Memorias I Seminario Nacional sobre Biotecnología.  Universidad del Tolima. Colombia, pp 65-77.

Mafla G. 1995. Manejo de datos e información de la colección in vitro de yuca (Manihot esculenta, Crantz). In: Memorias. Curso en Documentación de Recursos Fitogenéticos. Auspiciado por Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bioversity y CIAT. Palmira, pp. 97-118.

Marin ML, Mafla G, Roca WM, Withers LA. 1990. Conservation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): The role of cryopreservation. In: Proceedings of the VIIth International Congress on plant tissue and cell culture, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 24-29 June 1990, pp. 371.

Marin ML, Mafla G, Roca WM, Withers LA. 1990. Cryopreservation of cassava zygotic embryos and whole seeds in liquid nitrogen. Cryo-letters, 11: 257-264.

Mohd SS, Rao VR, editors. 2001. Establishment and Management of Field Genebank, a Training Manual. IPGRI-APO, Serdang. 121p. Available here.

Mumford PM, Grout BWW. 1978. Germination and liquid nitrogen storage of cassava seed. Ann. Bot., 42: 255-257.

Mycock DJ, Wesley-Smith J, Berjak P. 1995. Cryopreservation of somatic embryos of four species with and without cryoprotectant pre-treatment. Ann. Bot., 75: 331-336.

Nassar NMA, O’Hair SK. 1985. Variation among cassava clones in relation to seed germination. Indian J. Genetics 45(2):394-398.

Nassar NMA. 2006. Cassava genetic resources: extinct everywhere in Brazil. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 53:975-983.

Ng NQ, Ng SYC. 2002. Genetic resources and conservation. In: Hillocks RJ, Thresh JM, Bellotti AC, editors. Cassava: Biology, Production and Utilization. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK. pp. 167–177.

Nolt B, Velasco AC, Pineda B. 1991. Improved purification procedure and some serological and physical properties of Cassava Common Mosaic Virus from South America. Ann. Appl. Biol. 118: 105-113.

Nolt B, Pineda B, Velasco AC. 1992. Surveys of cassava plantations in Colombia for virus and virus-like diseases. Plant Pathology 41: 348-354.

Nweke FI, Spencer DSC, Lynam JK. 2002. The cassava transformation: Africa’s best-kept secret. Michigan State University Press, East Lansing, MI.

Ocampo CH, Angel F, Jímenez A, Jaramillo G, Hershey C, Granados E, Iglesias C. 1995. DNA fingerprinting to confirm possible genetic duplicates in cassava germplasm. In: Roca WM, Thro AM, editors. Proceedings of the Second International Scientific Meeting of the Cassava Biotechnology network. Bogor, Indonesia, 22-26 August 1994. Working Document No. 150. Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT). Cali, Colombia, pp. 145-151.

Ocampo CH, Hershey C, Iglesias C, Iwanaga M. 1993. Esterase isozyme fingerprinting of the cassava germplasm collection held at CIAT. In: Roca WM, Thro AM, editors. Proceedings of the First International Scientific Meeting of the Cassava Biotechnology Network (CBN), Cartagena, Colombia, 25-28 August 1992, Cali, Colombia: CIAT (Working Document No. 123), pp. 81-89.

Olsen KM. 2004. SNPs, SSRs and inferences on cassava’s origin. Plant Molecular Biology, 56: 517-526.

Onwueme IC. 2002. Cassava in Asia and the Pacific. In: Hillocks RJ, Thresh JM, Bellotti AC, editors. Cassava: Biology, Production and Utilization. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK. pp. 55–66.

Orrego JI, Hershey C. 1984. Almacenamieno del polen de yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz) por medio de liofilizacion y varios regimenes de humedad y temperatura. [Storage of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) pollen by means of lyophilization and various temperature and humidity regimes]. Acta Agronomica (Colombia) 34:21-25.

Ospina B, Ceballos H, editors. 2002. La yuca en el tercer milenio: sistemas modernos de producción, procesamiento, utilización y comercialización [Cassava in the third milenium: modern systems of production, processing, utilization and commercialization]. CIAT Publication No. 327, CIAT, Cali, Colombia.

Patiño VM, Hershey CH. 1981. Collection priorities for cassava (Manihot esculenta) and wild Manihot species in Latin America. Series AGPG:IBPGR/81/95. IBPGR, Rome, Italy.

Perry M. 1994. Documentation and databases for germplasm collections. In International Network for Cassava Genetic Resources. Report of the First Meeting, CIAT, Cali, Colombia, 18-23 August 1992. International Crop Network Series No. 10, IPGRI, Rome, Italy. pp. 157-162.

Phillips T, Taylor D, Sanni L, Akoroda M. 2004. A cassava industrial revolution in Nigeria: the potential for a new industrial crop. IFAD, FAO, Rome. Available from: www.fao.org/docrep/007/y5548e/y5548e00.htm Date accessed: 25 March 2010.

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Roa AC, Maya MM, Duque MC, Tohme J, Allem AC, Bonierbale MW. 1997. AFLP analysis of relationships among cassava and other Manihot species. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 95: 741-750.

Roca WM, Angel F, Sarria R, Mafla G. 1992. Future initiatives in biotechnology research for tropical agriculture: the case of cassava. In: McCorwick DK, editor. Advances in Gene Technology: Feeding the World in the 21st Century, 1992 Miami Bio/technology Winter Symposium, Miami, FL, USA, pp. 87.

Roca WM, Chaves R, Marin ML, Arias DI, Mafla G, Reyes R. 1989. In vitro methods of germplasm conservation. Genome 31 (2):813-817.

Roca WM, Escobar R, Angel F, Mafla G. 1991. Tissue culture methods for germplasm conservation: The case of cassava. In: Bardowell ME, editor. Tissue culture technology for improved farm production, Kingston, Jamaica. Pp 47-55.

Roca WM, Mafla G, Segovia RJ. 1991. Costo mínimo de un laboratorio de cultivo de tejidos vegetales. In: Roca WM, Mroginski LA, editors. Cultivo de tejidos en la agricultura: Fundamentos y Aplicaciones, pp. 912-920.

Roca WM, Nolt B, Mafla G, Roa JC, Reyes R. 1991. Eliminación de virus y propagación de clones en la yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz) In: Roca WM, Mroginski LA, editors. Cultivo de tejidos en la agricultura: Fundamentos y Aplicaciones, pp. 403-421.

Roca WM. 1984. Cassava. In: Sharp WR, Evans DA, Ammirato RV, Yamada Y. editors. Handbook of plant cell culture: crop species, vol 2. MacMillan Publishers, New York, pp 269-301.

Roca, WM, Rodriguez JA, Roa J. 1983. Procedures for Recovering Cassava and Sweet potato Germplasm Distributed In vitro. Genetic Resource Unit CIAT Apartado Aéreo 6713 Call, Colombia S.A . Available from: URL:  http://www.scribd.com/doc/35771901/Manual-for-TC-Cassava-Sweet-Potato Date accessed: 27 August 2010.

Rogers DJ, Appan SG. 1973. Manihot, Manihotoides (Euphorbiaceae), Flora Neotropica, Monograph no. 13. Hafner Press, New York. 272 pp.

Szabados L, Hoyos R, Roca W. 1987. In vitro somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of cassava. Available for purchase online from: http://www.springerlink.com/content/r53x32l17281215h/ Date accessed: 26 August 2010.

Szabados L, Nuñez LM, Tello LM, Mafla G, Roa JC, Roca WM. 1991. Agentes gelanitizadores en el cultivo de tejidos. In: Roca WM, Mroginski LA, editors. Cultivo de tejidos en la agricultura: Fundamentos y Aplicaciones, pp. 79-93.

Tewe OO. 2004. Cassava for livestock feed in sub-Saharan Africa. FAO/IFAD, Rome. Available from:  www.fao.org/docrep/007/j1255e/j1255e00.htm Date accessed: 25 March 2010.

Unnikrishnan M, Easwari Amma CS, Sreekumari MT, Sheela MN, Mohan C. 1987. Cassava germplasm conservation and improvement in India. In Proceedings of a cassava workshop in Asia. February 19987. Available from: URL: http://webapp.ciat.cgiar.org/asia_cassava/pdf/proceedings_workshop_02/87.pdf Date accessed: 26 August 2010.

Velasco AC, Nolt B, Pineda B. 1990. Comparación de tres métodos de la técnica inmunoenzimática “Elisa” para el diagnóstico de virus del mosaico común de la yuca. Fitopatología Colombiana 14 (1): 3-9.

Velásquez E, Mafla G. 1999. Conservación in vitro: Una alternativa segura para preservar especies silvestres de Manihot spp. (Euphorbiaceae). In: II Congreso Nacional de Conservación de la Biodiversidad. Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá 19-22 Octubre, 1999, pp 14.

The Genebanks

The 11 CGIAR genebanks currently conserve 730,000 of cereals and grain legumes, forage crops, tree species, root and tuber crops, bananas and crop wild relatives.

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