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Nematodes – cowpea | Guidelines for safe transfer of cowpea germplasm | Safe transfer of cowpea germplasm | Safe Transfer of Germplasm (STOG) | General genebank management strategies and principles | Resources | Genebank Platform

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Nematodes - Cowpea

Contributors to this section: IITA, Nigeria (M. Ayodele, L. Kumar).

Contents:
Root-knot nematodes
Reniform nematodes

Root-knot nematodes

Scientific name

Meloidogyne arenaria.

Other scientific names

Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood 1949
Oxyuris incognita Kofoid & White, 1919
Meloidogyne incognita acrita Chitwood, 1949
Meloidogyne acrita Chitwood, 1949

Importance

High

Significance

The nematode attacks many major food crops resulting in reduction in quality and quantity of food and feed .Yield loss ranges from 5%- to   complete loss (Sasser and Carter, 1984).

Symptoms

The nematode affects the  flowering, podding, seedling and vegetative growing stages. The leaves, roots and whole plant are also attacked by the nematode causing different symptoms on:

roots/ corms/ tubers: galls, abnormal formation and function of root system and blockage of; the vascular cylinder.

stem ( above the ground )symptoms : patchy, stunted growth; discoloration and

leaf : chlorosis, wilting

whole plant : stunting, reduced yield in quantity and quality; premature; death.

Hosts

The nematode has alarge host range which includes monocotyledons, dicotyledons, herbaceous and woody plants.

The major hosts include Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), Abelmoschus esculentus (okra), Arachis hypogaea (groundnut), Avena sativa (oats), Capsicum frutescens (chilli), Citrullus lanatus (watermelon), Coffea arabica (arabica coffee), Cucumis sativus (cucumber), Cucurbita pepo (ornamental gourd), Daucus carota (carrot), Glycine max (soyabean), Gossypium hirsutum (Bourbon cotton), Hordeum vulgare (barley), Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato), Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato), Medicago sativa (lucerne), Musa (banana), Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco), Oryza sativa (rice), Passiflora edulis (passionfruit), Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), Pisum sativum (pea), Prunus persica (peach), Vitis vinifera (grapevine), and Zea mays (maize).

Geographic distribution

Cosmopolitan

Biology and transmission

Not reported

Detection/indexing methods used at IITA

General methods for the detection of all nematodes

A:  On seeing suppressed growth/decreased production in crop plants

B :   Direct examination of plant material

Treatment/control

Procedures in case of positive test at IITA

References and further reading

Sasser JN, Carter CC. 1984. Overview of the International Meloidogyne Project, 1975-1984, pp. 19 – 24. In: Sasser JN, Carter CC, editors. An advanced treatise on Meloidogyne, Vol. 1 Biology and control. Raleigh, NC: A Cooperative Publication of the Department of Plant Pathology and Genetics, North Carolina State University, and the United States Agencey for International Development

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Reniform nematodes

Scientific name

Rotylenchulus reniformis

Other scientific names

Rotylenchulus leiperi (Das) Loof & Oostenbrunk, 1961
Rotylenchulus queirozi (Lordello & Cesnik) Sher, 1961
Rotylenchulus stakmani Husain & Khan, 196

Importance

High

Significance

The nematode is a pest of economic importance of cowpea , cotton, pineapple, sweet potato and soyabean, banana, aubergine, cabbage, okra, melon, pigeon pea, tea and tobacco.

There are no quantified reports on yield losses of cowpea due to attack by this nematode, although losses ranging from 9.5-17.4% and 40-60% due to attack by this nematode have been reported on cotton in India, and Egypt (Bridge, 1992; Robinson et. al., 1997).

Symptoms

Symptoms exhibited on all plant parts on:

Leaf : chlorosis

Seed/seedling : delayed emergence

Whole plant : stunted growth, wilting, collapse (Gaur and Perry, 1991).

Hosts

R. reniformis has a wide host. (Robinson et al., 1997) with major hosts such as: Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), Abelmoschus esculentus (okra), Ananas comosus (pineapple), Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage), Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea), Carica papaya (papaw), Citrus , Cucumis melo (melon), Cucurbitaceae (cucurbits), Glycine max (soyabean), Gossypium (cotton), Gossypium hirsutum (Bourbon cotton), Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato), Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato), Musa (banana), Phaseolus (beans), Solanum melongena (aubergine), and some recorded minor hosts include: Arachis hypogaea (groundnut), Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit), Beta vulgaris (beetroot), Brassica oleracea (cabbages, cauliflowers), Solanum tuberosum (potato), Sorghum halepense (Johnson grass), Theobroma cacao (cocoa), triticum aestivum (wheat), Vicia faba (broad bean), Vigna mungo (black gram), Vigna radiata (mung bean), Vitis vinifera (grapevine), Xanthosoma sagittifolium ( Cocoyam),and Zea mays (maize).

Geographic distribution

R. reniformis is very widely distributed in the subtropical and tropical regions of the world and also in some warm temperate localities in Europe and other countries.

Biology and transmission

R. reniformis is a soil inhabiting semi-endoparasite of roots. (Robinson et. al., 1997). The life cycle from egg to egg can be as short as 3 weeks

The nematode has biological races. In India, the nematode is reported to have at least two races on the basis of parasitism on three hosts, one parasitic on cowpea, castor and cotton, the other parasitic only on cowpea.

Races have also reported from USA, Cuba and Japan (Dasgupta and Seshadri, 1971; Robinson et al., 1997.

Detection/indexing methods used at IITA

Direct examination of plant material

Treatment

Procedures in case of positive test at IITA

References and further references

Bridge J. 1992. Nematodes. In: Hillocks RJ, editor. Cotton diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 331-353.

Dasgupta DR, Seshadri AR. 1971. Races of the reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford and Oliveira, 1940. Indian Journal of Nematology, 1:21-24.

Gaur HS, Perry RN. 1991. The biology and control of the plant parasitic nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis. Agricultural Zoology Reviews, 4:177-212.

Robinson AF, Inserra RN, Caswell-Chen EP, Vovlas N, Troccoli A. 1997. Rotylenchulus species: identification, distribution, host ranges, and crop plant resistance. Nematropica, 27(2):127-180

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The Genebanks

The 11 CGIAR genebanks currently conserve 730,000 of cereals and grain legumes, forage crops, tree species, root and tuber crops, bananas and crop wild relatives.

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