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Viruses – chickpea | Guidelines for safe transfer of chickpea germplasm | Safe transfer of chickpea germplasm | Safe Transfer of Germplasm (STOG) | General genebank management strategies and principles | Resources | Genebank Platform

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Viruses - Chickpea

Contributors to this page: ICRISAT, India (RP Thakur, AG Girish, VP Rao); ICARDA, Syria (Siham Asaad, Abdulrahman Moukahal).

Contents:
Pea Seedborne Mosaic
Alfalfa Mosiac
Bean Yellow Mosaic, Narrow leaf
Cucumber Mosaic, Proliferation

Pea Seedborne Mosaic

Scientific Name

Pea Seedborne Mosaic Virus (PSbMV).

Other scientific names

Pea fizzle top virus, pea leaf rolling virus, pea leaf roll mosaic virus, pea leaf rolling mosaic virus.

Significance

PSbMV is of economic importance in pea, faba bean and lathyrus, mainly due to its effect on seed quality. It has been mistakenly considered to be a minor disease because it often causes only minor yield loss and mild symptoms. However, at the International Centre for Agriculture in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Syria, glasshouse studies on yield losses due to PSbMV in chickpea, faba bean, lentil and pea showed losses of 66%, 40.5%, 44.6% and 49.2% respectively. Surveys of pulse crops over a number of years showed that up to 15% of crops were infected with PSbMV, with a within crop incidence of up to 5% of plants. In surveys in WA in 1999, PSbMV was found in 42% of field pea crops and the level of virus detected in pea seed stocks was up to 63%. The surveys in WA indicated that PSbMV has a severe effect on seed quality of pulse crops with seed coat symptoms evident on >80% of faba bean, >50% of lathyrus species and field peas and 5% of chickpea seed.

Symptoms

The disease is characterized by a mild mottling on the leaves.

The affected plants are reduced in growth, which is easily recognized, especially when they are compared with healthy plants. Yield reductions of 15-16% could occur in some different cultivars. Seeds from infected plants occasionally show dark staining on the seed.

Plants may show no symptoms or there may be chlorosis in new shoots, mottling on leaves, shoot tip necrosis and stunting of plants.

PSbMV (photo: www1.agric.gov.ab.ca)

Hosts

The natural host range of PSbMV is limited to the Fabaceae. It infects temperate pulses (chickpea, faba bean, field pea, lentil) other legumes (garden pea, narbon bean) and pastures (lathyrus and vetch). A number of PSbMV pathotypes have been recognised by their ability to infect a number of pea differential genotypes.

Geographic distribution

Cosmopolitan.

Biology and transmission

The virus is believed to have spread worldwide through the exchange of infected seed. Seed transmission rates of up to 100% in peas and up to 44% in lentils have been reported. In Victoria, we have detected PSbMV at low levels in some commercial chickpea seedlots (0.4% of seed) and at higher levels in field pea and lentil seedlots (greater than 2% of seed). In the USA, 3% PSbMV infection in pea seedlots and 32-40% in lentil seedlots have been reported. At ICARDA, PSbMV was found to be transmitted through lentil seeds at rates of up to 44%. PSbMV is also transmitted in a non-persistent manner by more than 20 aphid species and by mechanical means. The most efficient vector is the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum). The other species are as follows: A. pelargoni, A. sesbaniae, Aphis craccivora, A. fabae, A. gossypii, A. nasturtii, Aulacorthum circumflexum, A. solani, Brevicoryne brassicae, Cryptomyzus ribis, Dactynotus escalantii, Macrosiphum avenae, M. euphorbiae, M. pisi, M. rosae, Metopolophium dirhodum, Myzus persicae, Ovatus crataegarius, Phorodon cannabis, Rhopalosiphum padi and Semiaphis dauci. In Victorian pulse crop surveys, we have found cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora), foxglove aphid (Aulacorthum solani) and green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), which are all vectors of PSbMV.

Detection/indexing method in place at the CGIAR Centres

Treatment

References and further reading

http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au

http://www.icarda.org/Publications/Field_Guides/Lentil/Lent7.Html

http://image.fs.uidaho.edu/vide/descr575.htm

http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/prm7819

http://www.inra.fr/hyp3/pathogene/6psbmov.htm

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Alfalfa Mosiac

Scientific Name

Alfalfa Mosaic Virus (AMV).

Other scientific names

Lucerne Mosaic Virus, Potato Calico Virus.

Significance

The studies showed that up to 17% of crops were infected with AMV, with a within-crop incidence of up to 21% of plants.

Symptoms

Chlorosis of the terminal bud and twisting, followed by necrosis and the subsequent proliferation of secondary branches. Such new secondary branches are stiff and erect with smaller leaflets that show a mild mottle.

Very few pods are produced.

Terminal bud necrosis can also be caused by iron deficiency but proliferation of branches is not seen in iron deficient plants.

Hosts

The host range of AMV is wide and not limited to Fabaceae. Temperate pulse hosts include chickpeas, faba beans, field peas, lentils, narbon beans, grass peas and vetch. Pasture legume hosts include lucerne, burr medic and other annual medics and a number of clover species.

Geographic distribution

Algeria, India, Iran, Morocco, New Zealand and USA.

Biology and transmission

The virus is transmitted by a vector; transmitted by mechanical inoculation; transmitted by grafting; not transmitted by contact between hosts; transmitted by seeds (50% in alfalfa seeds from individual infected plants and up to 10% in commercial seed, transmitted by pollen to the seed).

Vector Transmission
The virus is transmitted by arthropods, by insects of the order Hemiptera, family Aphididae; Myzus persicae and at least 13 other species. The virus is transmitted in a non-persistent manner.

Detection/indexing method in place at the CGIAR Centres

Treatment

Procedure followed at the CGIAR Centres in case of positive test

No specific procedures notified.

References and further reading

http://www.icrisat.org/vasat/learning_resources/chickpea/chickpea_diseases/viral_mosaic.htm

http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ICTVdb/ICTVdB/00.010.0.01.001.htm

AMV (photos: www.dpi.vic.gov.au)

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Bean Yellow Mosaic, Narrow leaf

Scientific Name

Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus (BYMV).

Other scientific names

Bean Virus 2, Canna Mosaic Virus.

Significance

BYMV is sometimes found in faba bean crops and occasionally in peas with within crop virus incidences of 1-15% and up to 7% respectively.

Symptoms

Yellowing and drying of the plants with feathery and deformed leaves are common.

The leaves below the proliferated branches turn yellow, show interveinal chlorosis, or mosaic depending on the genotype tested. The overall height of the plant is reduced.

Affected plants produce very few, distorted flowers that develop into very small pods.

The seeds from infected plants are black, small, and shriveled.

BYMV (photo: www.icrisat.org)

Hosts

The host range of BYMV is wide and not limited to Fabaceae. The virus is reported to infect nearly 200 species in 14 families. Temperate pulse hosts include chickpeas, faba beans, field peas, lentils and lupins. Temperate legume pasture hosts include lathyrus, lucerne, vetch and medic and clover species. BYMV has a number of subtropical and tropical pulse hosts, including soybeans, peanuts and French beans as well as legume pasture hosts. It also infects ornamental hosts, the most common being gladiolus species.

Geographic distribution

The virus is probably distributed worldwide.

Biology and transmission

The virus is transmitted by a vector. The virus is transmitted by mechanical inoculation; and transmitted by seeds up to 3%.

Vector Transmission:
Virus is transmitted by arthropods, by insects of the order Hemiptera, family Aphididae; more than 20 ssp. including Acyrthosiphon pisum, Macrosiphum euphorbiae, Myzus persicae, Aphis fabae. Virus is transmitted in a non-persistent manner.

Detection/indexing method in place at the CGIAR Centres

Treatment

Procedure in place at the CGIAR Centres in case of positive test

No specific procedures notified.

References and further reading

http://www.icrisat.org/vasat/learning_resources/chickpea/chickpea_diseases/viral_narrowleaf.htm

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ICTVdb/ICTVdB/00.057.0.01.009.htm

http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/DPI/nreninf.nsf/9e58661e880ba9e44a256c640023eb2e/63ee9f53372b3a0dca25729f00111bea/$FILE/AG1266_Nov06.pdf

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Cucumber Mosaic, Proliferation

Scientific Name

Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV).

Other Scientific Names

Banana Infectious Chlorosis Virus, Cleus Mosiac Virus.

Significance

In field experiments infection in chickpea was shown to diminish shoot dry weight by 72-81%, seed yield by 80-90% and individual seed yield by 17-25%.

Symptoms

Bushy and stunted plants.

Diseased plants produce few flowers and pods, and many die prematurely.

CMV (photo: ICARDA)

Hosts

Susceptible host species are found in the families: Amaranthaceae, Apocynaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Compositae, Convolvulaceae, Cruciferae, Cucurbitaceae, Leguminosae-Papilionoideae, Malvaceae, Phytolaccaceae, Polygonaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae, Tetragoniaceae, Tropaeolaceae, Umbelliferae.

Geographic distribution

The virus is probably distributed worldwide.

Biology and transmission

The virus is transmitted by a vector; the virus is transmitted by mechanical inoculation; it is transmitted by seeds (in 19 species but in variable extents).

Vector Transmission
The virus is transmitted by arthropods, by insects of the order Hemiptera, family Aphididae; more than 60 subspecies including Acyrthosiphon pisum, Aphis craccivora and Myzus persicae. The virus is transmitted in a non-persistent manner.

Detection/indexing method in place at the CGIAR Centres

Treatment

Procedure followed at the centers in case of positive test

No specific procedures notified.

References and further reading

http://www.icrisat.org/vasat/learning_resources/chickpea/chickpea_diseases/viral_proliferation.htm

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ICTVdb/ICTVdB/00.010.0.04.001.htm

http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/DPI/nreninf.nsf/9e58661e880ba9e44a256c640023eb2e/a73624a37a622c9bca25720c0008b5f3/$FILE/AG1207_Aug06.pdf

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The Genebanks

The 11 CGIAR genebanks currently conserve 730,000 of cereals and grain legumes, forage crops, tree species, root and tuber crops, bananas and crop wild relatives.

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