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Cultural practices for regeneration of wild rice and related genera

Contributors to this page: T.T. Chang Genetic Resources Centre-IRRI, Los Baños, Philippines (Ruaraidh Sackville Hamilton, Ken McNally, Flora de Guzman, Renato Reaño, Soccie Almazan, Adelaida Alcantara, Elizabeth Naredo); WARDA, Cotonou, Benin (Ines Sánchez); UPLB-University of the Philippines at Los Baños (Teresita Borromeo).

Before reading the regeneration details for this crop, read the general introduction that gives general guidelines to follow by clicking here.


General guidelines

Understanding the biology of wild rice plants and knowledge of the natural growing habitat of the different species is very important for the initial seed multiplication of a specie.

Choice of environment and planting season

Climatic conditions

Planting season

Preparation for regeneration

When to regenerate

The frequency of regeneration is determined by the quantity of seeds stocks left at the genebank.

The selection of materials for planting depends upon the available space in the screenhouse facility as space is usually a limiting factor.

Propagation method

Breeding system

Isolation

Pre-treatments

Wild species are known to have stronger dormancy than the cultivated species. They may require one or a combination of dormancy breaking treatments including heat treatment, dehulling, exposure to alternating temperatures, and in some cases chemical treatments.

Heat treatment

Dehulling

Chemical treatment

Method of regeneration

Sowing method

Transplanting

Planting layout, density and distance

Planting conditions

Different varieties of rice being grown inside an IRRI green house (photo: IRRI)

Crop management

Fertilization

Irrigation

Pest and disease control

 Thinning

Harvesting

Panicle bagging

Rice being grown inside an IRRI screen house. Notice the bagged panicles (photo: IRRI)

Panicle harvesting

Post harvest management

Seed processing

Disposal of contaminated materials

To ensure plants do not spread by seeds or rhizomes, specific measures should be followed:

For information about monitoring accession identity and documentation of information during regeneration, click here.

References and further reading

Borromeo TH, Sanchez PL, Vaughan DA. 1994. Wild rices of the Philippines. Philippine Rice Research Institute, Maligaya, Nueva Ecija, Philippines.

Chang TT, Vaughan DA.1989. Conservation and potentials of rice genetic resources. In: Bajaj YFS, editor. Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry. Berlin: Springer Verlag.

Hanson J. 1985. Practical Manuals for Genebanks: Procedures for handling seeds in genebanks. IBPGR, Rome, Italy. HTML version available from: http://www2.bioversityinternational.org/publications/Web_version/188/. Date accessed: 10 June 2010.

Lu BR. 1999. Taxonomy of the genus Oryza (Poaceae): Historical perspective and current status. IRRN 24.3. IRRI, Los Baños, Laguna.

Manual of operations and procedures of the International Rice Genebank. 2000. Genetic Resources Center, IRRI. Available here.

Naredo MEB, Juliano AB, Lu BR, de Guzman FC, Jackson MT. 1998. Responses to seed dormancy breaking treatments in rice species (Oryza L). Seed Science and Technology, 26:675-689.

Rao NK, Hanson J, Dulloo ME, Ghosh K, Nowel D, Larinde M. 2006. Manual of seed handling in genebanks. Handbooks for Genebanks No. 8. Bioversity International, Rome, Italy. Available in English (1.5 MB),  Spanish (1.4 MB) and French (1.9 MB).

Reed BM, Engelmann F, Dulloo ME, Engels JMM. 2004. Technical guidelines for the management of field and in vitro germplasm collections. Handbook for Genebanks No. 7. IPGRI, Rome, Italy. Available here.

Sackville-Hamilton NRS, Chorlton KH. 1997. Regeneration of accessions in seed collections: a decision guide. Handbook for Genebanks No. 5. IPGRI, Rome, Italy. Available here.

Tateoka T. 1962a. Taxonomic studies of Oryza I. O. latifolia complex. Bot. Mag. Tokyo 75: 418-427.

Tateoka T. 1962b. Taxonomic studies of Oryza II. Several species complexes. Bot. Mag. Tokyo. 75: 455-461

Tateoka T. 1963. Taxonomic studies of Oryza III. Key to the species and their enumeration. Bot. Mag. Tokyo. 76: 166-173.

van Soest LJM. 1990. Plant Genetic Resources: Safe for the future in genebanks. Impact of Science on Society 158: 107-120.

Vaughan DA. 1989. The genus Oryza L. Current status of taxonomy. IRRI Research Paper Series 138, Manila, Philippines.

Vaughan DA, Sitch LA. 1991. Gene flow from the jungle to farmers. Bioscience Vol. 41(1):22-28.

Vaughan DA. 1992. The wild relatives of rice: A genetic resources handbook. IRRI, Los Baños, Philippines.

Vaughan DA, Chang TT. 1992. In situ conservation of rice genetic resources. Economic Botany 46(4): 368-383.

Vaughan DA, Morishima H, Kadowaki K. 2003. Diversity in the Oryza genus. Current Opinion 6:139-146.

The Genebanks

The 11 CGIAR genebanks currently conserve 730,000 of cereals and grain legumes, forage crops, tree species, root and tuber crops, bananas and crop wild relatives.

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