Safety duplication of banana genetic resources

Contributors to this page: Bioversity International, France (Nicolas Roux), Bioversity International, Belgium (Ines Van den Houwe); IITA, Nigeria (Dominique Dumet, Badara Gueye).

When should it be used

See also the general page on safety duplication procedures.

Banana germplasm should be duplicated in a systematic way, consistently sharing information and germplasm to optimize the conservation system.

Material should be duplicated in more than one location and/or using more than one method (i.e. in the field, in vitro or tissue culture and cryopreservation).

Sample specifications

Minimum sample size

Container specifications

To ensure seed viability in the genebank and en route to the users.

Specification of packaging


Storage specifications

Shipping method


Storage duration

Legal arrangements

The genebank, host country and importing centre and country policies and practices for germplasm movement for black-box storage must be fulfilled. The documentation listed below should be included to facilitate customs clearance:

IITA-Nigeria has the following procedure:

Bioversity follows slightly different procedures:

Data arrangements

Bioversity – germplasm ID, inventory of black-box content sent with samples.
IITA – import permit stating list of accessions transferred, endorsed by PQS prior to departure. Report at boarder PQS office.

Provision for return of germplasm

Bioversity – loss of samples from LTS at Bioversity ITC; sample provided by the duplication site at the request of Bioversity, giving six-months’ written notice (if less than 95% certainty that one minimum plant can be regenerated per experiment).
IITA – repatriation permit to request material when needed.

Recording information during safety duplication

The following steps should be taken regularly, due to the short-term duration of conserving clonal crops:

The following information should be kept up-to-date:

References and further reading

FAO/IPGRI. 1994. Genebank standards. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome and International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome. Available in English, Spanish, French and Arabic.

The Genebanks

The 11 CGIAR genebanks currently conserve 730,000 of cereals and grain legumes, forage crops, tree species, root and tuber crops, bananas and crop wild relatives.