Safety duplication of forage legume genetic resources

Contributors to this page: ILRI, Ethiopia (Jean Hanson); ICARDA, Syria (Ahmed Amri, Kenneth Street, Ali Shehadeh, Natalya Rukhkyan); GRCTPL, Australia (Richard Snowball); Bioversity International/ILRI, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (Alexandra Jorge).

When should it be used


Checking packets of seeds before dispatch for safety duplication (photo: ILRI)

For all original seeds collected by the genebank or only held by the genebank (seeds which are duplicates from other collections can usually be retrieved from those collections and do not require safety duplication unless there is doubt about their security in the other collection). See also the general page on safety duplication procedures.

Sample specifications

Minimum sample size

Viability for storage

Moisture content

Container specifications


Packaging seeds for safety duplication (photo: ILRI)

Seed packaging method

Specifications of packaging material

Storage specifications


Safety duplication box ready to go to Svalbard (photo: ILRI)

Assigning location codes in boxes

Storage conditions

Shipping method


Common CGIAR agreements should be used:

References and further reading

FAO/IPGRI. 1994. Genebank standards. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome and International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome. Available in English, Spanish, French and Arabic .

NordGen. 2008. Agreement between (depositor) and the Royal Norwegian Ministry of Agriculture and Food concerning the deposit of seeds in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault. [online] The Svalbard Gloal Seed Vault, The Nordic Genetic Resource Centre, Alnarp, Sweden. Available from: Date accessed: 23 March 2010.

The Genebanks

The 11 CGIAR genebanks currently conserve 730,000 of cereals and grain legumes, forage crops, tree species, root and tuber crops, bananas and crop wild relatives.