Filters

Regeneration guidelines for cassava

View regeneration guidelines in full (in PDF)
by clicking on the picture above (0.2MB)

Also available in the following languages:
FrenchPortugueseSpanish

The information on this page was extracted from:
Jorge M.A. 2008. Regeneration guidelines: cassava. In: Dulloo M.E., Thormann I., Jorge M.A. and Hanson J., editors. Crop specific regeneration guidelines [CD-ROM]. CGIAR System-wide Genetic Resource Programme, Rome, Italy. 9 pp.

Before reading the regeneration details for this crop, read the general introduction that gives general guidelines to follow by clicking here.

This guideline provides information for the regeneration of field collections of cultivated species.

Introduction

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is the only domesticated species of a genus which contains 98 species and belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family. It was first domesticated 7000 years ago (Allem 2002) in the lowlands of South America, probably in the Amazon Basin. Introduced into Africa by the Portuguese in the 16th century and into Asia in the 18th century (Hillocks 2002; Onwueme, 2002), today it is found all over the tropics and subtropics.
It is a very hardy perennial crop with the ability to grow on land where drought is frequent and in soils low in nutrients, where cereals and other crops do not grow well. Cassava is vegetatively propagated from nodal cuttings (stakes) in field production systems, while all of the wild species are seed propagated in nature. It is also a monoecious and predominantly cross-pollinating species with viable seeds in the genotypes that flower. Controlled pollination and seed production are mostly used for the development of new varieties in breeding programmes. Seed populations can also be collected from cassava field collections to be stored and preserved as future sources of genetic information. Wild types are more difficult to regenerate in field genebanks than cultivated landraces (M. esculenta); most of them are perennial and difficult to regenerate through cuttings. Cassava is mainly conserved as live plants in field genebanks, but it can also be maintained as seeds, in vitro and by cryopreservation. About 20 000 accessions are being conserved worldwide, the largest collections being held at CIAT (Colombia), EMBRAPA (Brazil), IITA (Nigeria), and in Ghana and India (Ng and Ng 2002).


Fully grown cassava plants in a field bank (photo: IITA genebank)

Choice of environment and planting season

Climatic conditions

Planting season

Preparation for regeneration

When to regenerate

Preparation of planting material

Cassava stakes of good quality for planting. (photo: IITA genebank)

Laying out the cassava stakes for labelling (photo: INIA, Peru – Ll. Rios)

Labelling and disinfesting the cassava stakes (photo: INIA, Peru – Ll. Rios)

Field selection and preparation

Method of regeneration

Planting layout, density and distance

Plot size and spacing will depend on the size and purpose of the collection, land availability and demand for planting materials.


Planting cassava stakes in ridges (Photo: INIA, Peru – Ll. Rios)

Planting method

Crop management

Fertilization

Weed management

Irrigation

Pruning

Rotation

Common pests and diseases

America has the greatest diversity of cassava pests, followed by Africa and then Asia. Damage in Africa is often high due to the lack of natural predators of pests. Damage is greatest in the dry season or in dry areas with low or irregular rainfall. The green mite (Mononychellus tanajoa) (America and Africa) and the mealybug (Phenococcus manihoti and P. Herreni) cause major damage in Africa; whiteflies (Aleurotrachelus socialis and A. aepim), hornworm (Erinnyis ello), stemborers (Chilomina clarkei), burrower bugs (Sternocoelus manihoti and Tropidozineus fulveolus), thrips (Frankliniella williamsi) and lacebugs (Vatiga manihoti, V. illudens and Amblydtira machalana) are a problem in America, while scales (Aonidomytilus albus), termites and grasshoppers are widely reported. Amongst the main cassava diseases there are the complex of cassava mosaic diseases (CMD) caused by the African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV), the East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV) and by the South African cassava mosaic virus (SACMV); and the cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) in Africa. In South America, the main viral diseases are caused by the cassava common mosaic virus (CsCMV) and by the cassava frogskin virus (CFSV). Other diseases like cassava bacterial blight (CBB) or those caused by fungi, like cassava anthracnose and root rot, are important worldwide.
Contact plant health experts to identify symptoms and recommend appropriate control measures.

Pest and disease control

Harvesting

Post-harvest management

Monitoring accession identity

Documentation of information during regeneration

References and further reading

Adekunle AA, Dixon A, Ojurongbe J, Liona P, Muthada L, Adisa S. 2004. Growing Cassava Commercially in Nigeria. USAID, ICS-Nigeria and IITA. 22 pp. Available from: http://www.cassavabiz.org/agroenterprise/ent%20images/casava%20illust%20guid%20book.pdf. Date accessed: 1 August 2008.

Allem AC. 2002. The origins and taxonomy of cassava. In: Hillocks RJ, Thresh JM, Bellotti AC, editors. Cassava: Biology, Production and Utilization. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK. pp. 1–16.

Alves AC. 2002. Cassava botany and physiology. In: Hil ocks RJ, Thresh JM, Bel otti AC, editors. Cassava: Biology, Production and Utilization. CABI Publishing, Wal ingford, UK. pp. 67–89.

Bellotti AC. 2002. Arthropod pests. In: Hillocks RJ, Thresh JM, Bellotti AC, editors. Cassava: Biology, Production and Utilization. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK. pp. 209–235.

Bioversity International. 2009. Key access and utilization descriptors for cassava genetic resources. Available here

Calvert LA, Thresh JM. 2002. The viruses and virus diseases of cassava. In: Hillocks RJ, Thresh JM, Bellotti AC, editors. Cassava: Biology, Production and Utilization. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK. pp. 236–260.

Cock JH. 1985. Cassava: physiological basis. In: Cock JH, Reyes JA, editors. Cassava: Research, Production and Utilization. UNDP/CIAT. pp. 33–62.

De Goes M, Sias-Costa CIR, Guedes AC, Morales EAV, Second G. 1999. Cassava – a Brazilian model for the field maintenance of germplasm. In: Engelman F, editor. Management of field and in vitro germplasm collections. IPGRI, Rome, Italy. pp. 10–12.

FAO. 2004. Production Year Book. FAO, Rome, Italy.

Fukuda WMG, Guevara CL. 1998. Descritores morfologicos e agronomicos para a caracterizacao de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz). EMBRAPA-CNPMF Documentos 78. EMBRAPA-CNPMF, Cruz das Almas, Brazil. 38 pp.

Fukuda WMG, Costa IRS, Vilarinhos AD, Oliveira RP. 1996. Banco de germoplasma de mandioca: manejo, conservacao e caracterizacao. EMBRAPA-CNPMF Documentos 68 EMBRAPA-CNPMF, Cruz das Almas, Brazil. 103 pp.

Fukuda WMG, Costa IRS, Silva SO. 2005. Manejo e conservacao de recursos geneticos de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz) na Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical. Circular Tecnica 74. 4 pp.

Hillocks RJ. 2002. Cassava in Africa. In: Hillocks RJ, Thresh JM, Bellotti AC, editors. Cassava: Biology, Production and Utilization. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK. pp. 41–54.

INIA. 2005. Descriptor de yuca (Manihot esculenta). Programa Nacional de Investigación en Recursos Genéticos y Biotecnología, PRONIRGEB, INIA, Lima, Peru. 52 pp.

Iglesias CA. 1999. Field maintenance of cassava germplasm. In: Engelman F, editor. Management of field and in vitro germplasm collections. IPGRI, Rome, Italy. pp. 5–9.

Lelhner D. 2002. Agronomy and cropping systems. In: Hillocks RJ, Thresh JM, Bellotti AC, editors. Cassava: Biology, Production and Utilization. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK. pp. 91–113.

Ng NQ, Ng SYC. 2002. Genetic resources and conservation. In: Hillocks RJ, Thresh JM, Bellotti AC, editors. Cassava: Biology, Production and Utilization. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK. pp. 167–177.

Onwueme IC. 2002. Cassava in Asia and the Pacific. In: Hillocks RJ, Thresh JM, Bellotti AC, editors. Cassava: Biology, Production and Utilization. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK. pp. 55–66.

Acknowledgement

We acknowledge the useful contributions and suggestions from Dominique Dumet, Soyode Folarin and Olaniyi Oyatomi, International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Nigeria; Llerme Rios Lobo, Instituto Nacional de Innovación Agraria (INIA), Peru; Wania Fukuda, Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA), Brazil; and Francisco Morales, International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Colombia.
These guidelines have been peer reviewed by Nyat Quat Ng, consultant, Malaysia, and Clair Hershey, private consultant, USA.

back to top

The Genebanks

The 11 CGIAR genebanks currently conserve 730,000 of cereals and grain legumes, forage crops, tree species, root and tuber crops, bananas and crop wild relatives.

close-icon